teksty trzecie


przełożył Aleksander Ledóchowski, „Film na Świecie”, 1983, nr 300 tu

Jeśli dźwięk może zastąpić obraz, należy ten obraz usunąć lub zneutralizować. Słuch lepiej rozpoznaje to, co wewnętrzne, wzrok – co zewnętrzne.


with thanks to Dan Warburton

cahiers du cinema 152



Moja muzyka opiera się na ruchu mas dźwiękowych pozbawionych wzajemnych związków: pozbawionych w tym sensie, że poruszają się one równocześnie z różnymi prędkościami. Cieszę się, że nastanie kiedyś czas, gdy nauka wzbogaci środki realizacji, już dzisiaj swobodna w tym sensie równoczesność metryczna dzięki elektronice znalazła się koniec końców w zasięgu możliwości.

„Res facta” 01/1967, przeł. Zofia Jaremko-Pytowska



Pomimo wszystkiego czegośmy dokonali, by stłamsić muzykę, to nadal, kiedy tylko poddamy się jej działaniu, ogarnia nas z siłą, o jakiej żaden obraz, choćby nie wiem jak piękny, i żadne słowa, choćby nie wiem, jak dostojne, nie mogą nawet pomarzyć. Zdołaliśmy się przyzwyczaić do dziwnego widoku sali pełnej cywilizowanych ludzi, którzy poruszają się rytmicznie pod dyktando zespołu muzyków; być może jednak pewnego dnia dnia ujawnią się w pełni potężne możliwości ukryte w sile rytmu, by zrewolucjonizować całe nasze życie, tak jak się to stało, kiedy człowiek po raz pierwszy uświadomił sobie moc sprzężonej pary.

w: Eseje wybrane, przeł. Magda Heydel, Wydawnictwo Karakter, 2015



Latin American Music Review / Revista de Música Latinoamericana, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Spring – Summer, 2006) pdf

For the last fifteen years or so, Brazil has seen a social fragmentation (predominantly urban) and a parallel growing diversity in its popular music expressions. In 1985 Brazil returned to a democratic government after over twenty years of military authoritarian rule during which censorship was rampant and yet the popular music of the country developed in unprecedented fashion. The democratic return has meant freedom of expression and relative economic stability (especially in the 1990s and until the recent devaluation of the real), which prompted consumption of imported goods with the opening of the huge local market for imports. In the 1960s, after the emergence of the trend internationally known as bossa nova, the acronym MPB began to be used to designate new varieties of urban popular music, among which the most controversial was the short-lived Tropicilia movement, with the great figures of Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Tom Ze, Capinam, Rita Lee and Os Mutantes, and singer Gal Costa. These artists/ musicians/poets, together with Chico Buarque, Milton Nascimento, and a few others, represented the most sophisticated cultivation of popular song in the history of Brazilian popular music, and the most overt and active involvement in politics and cultural changes as witnessed in their modern urban experience.


Ethnomusicology, Vol. 17, No. 2 (May, 1973) pdf


Brazilian urban popular music of the last fifteen years has undergone drastic changes. The determinant factors for these changes are numerous and varied, and some of those will be briefly mentioned in this study. Since the advent of bossa nova (1958-59), the history of popular music in Brazil seems to have followed the fundamental pattern of modernization witnessed in the urban areas. The tremendous growth of urban population in the last fifteen years has made it possible to develop a diversified music market of incredible proportion for a so-called „underdeveloped” country. Moreover, the consequent emergence of a powerful urban middle class, with modernizing aspirations, has created a favorable climate for experimenting with new styles and for promoting greater competition among popular musicians. Social scientists define modern societies as being relatively secular, anthropocentric, and developing universalistic achievement and impersonal orientations. One characterization of modernization is the necessity to close the gap between what Shils calls the „center” and the „periphery,” i.e., between the „national” and the „international.”


Feminist Review, No. 3 (1979), pp. 24-47 pdf

I’m a film-maker, but I won’t say I’m a feminist film-maker. Immediately you do an interview, they say – oh, you’re making a woman’s film. No, I’m not making women’s films, I’m making Chantal Akerman’s films. I didn’t decide to make films with feminist points or to change social structures; I decided to make films, to work in that medium, with that art. It so happens I’m a woman and aware of certain problems, but that isn’t my main concern in making movies. But, you know, the way I am feminist – to a certain extent – is that I’m very confident in my feelings about what I should do. I’m not someone who thinks that because I’m a woman my thoughts are less good. In that respect I can say I am feminist but not in others. I mean, sure, I think about all the obvious questions about women – like work and abortion. It’s certain that women are oppressed and I’m not unaware of it, but I didn’t feel it myself, because I started in a marginal way. Which means I wasn’t confronted with the system. I worked myself to put money together – in offices, coffee bars and things like that; I didn’t go to institutions or financial backers. I provided the money myself by working in another field, then working at night in the editing room, getting a camera for nothing, with £300, £100, £500 – that kind of budget. So with no money and no confrontation with the industry-just very marginal – I wasn’t ashamed to do it and I didn’t care whether anyone was interested or not.


Latin American Music Review / Revista de Música Latinoamericana, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Spring – Summer, 1985) pdf


The first discussion of affinities between concrete poetry and Brazilian popular music dates to 1960, when critic Brasil Rocha Brito incorporated observations by Augusto de Campos into the first interpretative essay about Bossa Nova. Commenting on outstanding compositions of that musical movement, Campos focused on two particularly noteworthy songs by Antonio Carlos Jobim and Newton Mendona – „Desafinado” („Out of Tune”) and „Samba de uma nota so” („One-Note Samba”) – in which he perceived „a search for essentialization of the texts” and „a dialectical process similar to the one that the concrete poets defined as ‚isomorphism’ (the conflict of form and content in search of mutual identity).” Having shown close links between verbal and melodic-harmonic functions in these two classic songs, Campos concluded that, given the „critical intentionality” of some Bossa Nova lyrics, „they form a tendency that, in certain ways, . . . corresponds to manifestations of the poetic avant-garde, participating with it in a common cultural process.” Rocha Brito, in turn, held that other Bossa Nova lyrics de- served highlighting „for their synthesis and functionality,” even describing one lyric as „clearly influenced by the paths of concrete poetry.”


Luso-Brazilian Review, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Summer, 1994) pdf


As for new Brazilian poetry – i.e. the output of poets born from the mid-1940s to the mid-1950s and representing emergent stylistic tendencies – the 1970s were marked by pluralism and contrast. While many individual approaches to lyrical expression and textmaking were taken, and shared to greater and lesser degrees, overall practice operated between two poles. On one extreme, there was the informality of so-called poesia marginal and related extra-literary interests. On the other, there was what has been termed criação intersemiotica, encompassing post-concretist visual poetry and „constructivist” verse. Regardless of positioning between the poles, certain traits are shared by young writers of the 1970s. Across the spread of the spectrum, though with divergent motivations, there were stylistic mixtures and a thrust toward re-subjectivization in lyric. The unfolding fan of 1970s phenomena was built on a series of contrastive features and conceptual oppositions between poesia marginal and other youth poetry. The former – on the axis of subjectivity/objectivity – declared neo-romantic preferences, while non-marginals acted on modified classical impulses. Where spontaneity and actual experience interested one, elaboration and applied imagination were more important for the other. The colloquial was a primary aspect of poesia marginal, often in a literal empirical sense, while its counterpart sought more literary solutions. Oral qualities thus contrasted with desires for writerly textuality. In conjunction, poesia marginal might be seen as handicraft next to the manufactured products of the other sector. While having sparked new interest in poetry as cultural practice, received more critical (including journalistic) attention, and, in effect, shaped views of poetry in the 1970s, poesia marginal, qua trend, proved to be ephemeral and limiting. Those who superseded or challenged the limitations, in turn, merit well-contextualized attention.


The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Spring, 2005) pdf

Inspired by the approaching centenary of independence, turn-of-the-century intellectuals reconsidered the nation’s values. Evolving alongside the series of social and economic transformations affecting the country, a multifaceted ideology emerged as the fundamental basis of Brazilian modernism, and the first two decades of the twentieth century proved that cultural production was related directly to the fallout of historical circumstances. During this critical time, artists who were motivated to question tradition initiated the modernist movement; by renouncing the past, these activists isolated their work from established cultural trends, leaving them without fixed stylistic goals and aesthetic norms. As the undisputed leader of cultural modernism in Brazil, Mario de Andrade (1893-1945) labored to define a vision to which artists could adhere, through generations and ensuing trends, and claimed that actualizing postwar European models of constructive modernist tendencies could make possible a similar renovation of Brazilian culture. When investigating the cultural production he influenced, it is difficult to isolate any particular dimension of Andrade’s diversified perspective, but his vision narrowed gradually to two distinct and necessary emphases: 1) an ideological focus on Brazil’s current social reality; and 2) the use of pure and essential native resources to achieve a unique nationalist aesthetic. The two platforms combined to form a new expressive stimulus, and a representational brasilidade (Brazilianism) became, for the musical modernist, the only legitimate inspiration for creative expression. Through a survey of selected writings and a clarification of his methodology, this article specifically explores Andrade’s approach to the aesthetic orientation of Brazilian composers.